What is the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals? In case of ferrous (ferrum=iron) metals, the base metal is iron. They compose a large part of the overall metals in use today. This is made possible by their properties that suit many different industries and use-cases.
Non-ferrous metals, on the other hand, do not include iron. This distinction is made because it brings along a certain characteristic change that non-ferrous metals do not provide.
Ferrous metals may include a lot of different alloying elements. Some examples are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, manganese. 它们提供铁质钢 材料特性 that make them widely used in engineering.
These qualities make them usable in constructions of long-lasting skyscrapers. 最重要的是, 它们被用来制造工具, 汽车引擎, 管道, 容器, 汽车, 餐具等.
All of them have different specifications, resulting in a variety of applications. To give a better overview, we made a ferrous metals list:
Non-alloy steels are also known as carbon steels because carbon is the alloying element there. 是的, a little confusing as the name suggests one thing but that’s how it often is in the world of metals. Although there are other elements also present, their content is low enough to not make an impact on the 材料特性. Those elements are sulphur, phosphorus, sil图标 and manganese. Sulphur and phosphorus can actually have a detrimental effect on the steel’s quality but again, 没有这么低级的内容.
Non-alloy steels are classified by their carbon content as low, medium and high carbon steel. Each has their own uses and the characteristics vary. Also, different treatment methods are available accordingly.
The low cost and malleability low carbon steels are widely used. Some examples include bolts and 坚果, forgings, medium-loaded details etc.
中碳钢含0.25…0.6%的碳. The higher carbon content increases their strength and 硬度 compared to low carbon steels. At the same time, the ductility decreases. The increase of carbon and manganese allows tempering and quenching.
Medium carbon steels are mainly used for making different automotive industry components like gears, 轴, 还有轴和螺栓, 坚果, 螺丝等. 钢材范围从0.4…0.6% are also suitable for everything related to locomotives and rails.
Examples of medium carbon steels: C40E/1.1186, C60E/1.1221
The carbon content numbers for high carbon steels vary according to different sources. Some have more sub-groups, while other stop with high carbon steels that start with 0.碳含量为6%，末端约为1%. BTE365真正的网站来看第二种解释.
These are the strongest of this group, making it suitable for applications where resistance against 机械材料磨损 是必要的. Another quality of high carbon steels is their tendency to keep a shape. 这就是为什么 tool steels have a lot of different applications in the field of engineering.
作为一个缺点, 的可焊性, ductility and impact 韧性 are all inferior to steels with less carbon.
The shape-keeping quality makes them useful as springs. 其他用例包括刀片服务器, 铁路钢, 钢丝绳, 耐磨板, 各种工具等.
合金钢 make up another sub-group of ferrous metals. 钢的合金元素是 chrome, nickel, sil图标, copper, titanium etc. Each has their own effect on 材料特性. Of course, they are usually combined, so the end products has a bit of everything. We discuss how the most common elements affect the outcome.
Chromium is the element responsible for creating 不锈钢. Presence of chromium at levels above 11% make a metal corrosion-resistant. As discussed in the material wear article, the protection takes place through creating an oxidised chromium layer on top of the metal. This means that the base metal does not get into contact with oxygen and the danger of corrosion is greatly diminished.
Therefore, it is ready for use without any protective coating. You can achieve a great aesthetic result by choosing the right 不锈钢表面光洁度 为您的应用程序.
最重要的是, chromium also increases tensile strength, 硬度, 韧性, 耐磨性等.
Manganese improves ductility, wear resistance and hardenability. The latter is done through quenching where manganese has a significant impact. It diminishes the danger of defect formation during the process by making it more stable.
It also eliminates the formation of harmful iron sulfides, increasing strength at high temperatures.
Its main purpose is to increase ductility and corrosion resistance in combination with other elements, 即Chromium. When chromium content is around 18% and nickel at 8%, we get an extremely durable 不锈钢s.
Improves strength and provides elasticity in springs. Another significant effect is increasing a metal’s magnetic properties.
Improves strength and corrosion resistance, limits austenite 晶粒尺寸.
The formation of vanadium carbides limits the 晶粒尺寸. This has an effect on increasing a material’s ductility.
It also increases strength, 硬度, wear and shock impact resistance. Because of its effectiveness, the amounts must be held low. Otherwise, it can have a negative impact on 材料特性.
Molybdenum has a large effect on steel alloys at high temperatures. It improves mechanical properties but also resistance to corrosion and acts as an amplifier for the effects of other alloying elements.
铸铁 is an alloy of iron and carbon, with a carbon content somewhere between 1.5%和4%. There are also other elements present – namely sil图标, manganese, sulphur and phosphorus.
Although it is brittle, its 硬度 makes it resistant to wear. The final form of a cast iron product is gained through casting. This process only needs minor after treatment, making it possible to form a needed shape.
有色金属不含铁. They are softer and therefore more malleable. They have industrial uses as well as aesthetic purposes – precious metals like gold and silver are both non-ferrous. Actually, all pure metal forms, except for pure iron, are non-ferrous.
Non-ferrous metals’ advantages make them usable in many applications instead or iron and steel.
- Easy to fabricate – machinability, casting, welding etc
Again, we are going to provide some 信息rmation on each metal and its properties. 有色金属的例子:
Copper is pretty widely spread in the industrial sphere. 添加 alloys brass (copper and zinc) and bronze (copper and tin), and you may already see the many uses of copper. 如果没有，BTE365真正的网站可以帮你. 机械工程师, 滑动轴承 而衬套可能是最广为人知的用途.
Still, copper and copper alloy properties allow more applications:
- High thermal conductivity – heat exchangers, heating vessels and appliances etc
- High electrical conductivity – used as an electrical conductor in wiring and motors
- Good corrosion resistance – beautiful but expensive roofing
- High ductility – makes the material very easily formable and suitable for making statues
In engineering terms, a very special and important metal. May not be so useful in everyday application because of the price but its combination of low weight and great machinability make it the go-to metal in yachts, 飞机和许多汽车零部件.
Aluminium is also the base metal in many alloys. 最著名的 Aluminium的成绩 are probably duralumin, Y-alloy and magnalium.
- Good conductor of heat and electricity (but less than copper) – in combination with ductility and malleability replaces copper in some instances
- Becomes hard after cold working, so needs annealing
AluminiumBTE365真正的网站 is something that needs expertise and the right machinery. So choose you sub-contractor for manufacturing carefully.
对于一般人来说, lead may ring a bell related with bullets (which are now without lead) and gas (which has a sign “unleaded”). Although at first added to fuel to decrease motor knocks, it turned out to be heavily unhealthy when vaporised into the atmosphere.
The same goes for bullets and shooting range employees who got health problems because of it. 但为什么要把它放在首位? Because lead is the heaviest common metal. As it doesn’t react easily with other substances, they are still used in batteries and power cables, 酸罐和水管.
- Resistant to corrosion – doesn’t react with many chemicals
Zinc on its own doesn’t mean much to the average person. As an alloying element, on the other hand, it has a wide range of purposes. It is mainly used for galvanising steel in all kinds of fields. Galvanising makes a material more durable against corrosion.